KLH Engineers

Refrigeration

Refrigeration

To a consumer or end user, a refrigeration system is nothing more than a large fridge or freezer. Adjusting the thermostat simply raises or lowers the temperature within the space. Many facilities require refrigeration systems, most notably: grocery stores, convenience stores, distribution facilities, restaurants, and even warehouses. The installed system will allow the end user to control temperature; however, the system requirements vary from each project based on process, standards, and existing conditions. An engineered refrigeration system addresses the specific temperature and humidity requirements of both product and space while taking into consideration many design considerations. These considerations include: cost, installation, equipment selection, refrigerant selection, oil return, acoustics, power consumption, code requirements and regulations.

Refrigeration Services

Low/Medium/High Temperature Refrigeration System Design

Low/Medium/High Temperature Refrigeration System Design

Equipment Selection

A refrigeration system is first selected based on the temperature range required for product storage.

  • Low temperature systems (-40°F - +10°F) typical applications include: ice storage, reach in freezers, walk in freezers, ice cream cabinets.
  • Medium temperature systems (-10°F - +30°F) typical applications include: refrigerators, beverage coolers, walk in coolers, dough retarders, bottle coolers, meat cases, milk and dairy cases.
  • High temperature systems (+20°F - +55°F) typical applications include: dehumidifiers, florist refrigerators, produce coolers, mortuary and fur applications.
  • Commercial equipment temperature rages typical range form (-10°F - +45°F).
Evaporator, Condenser, and Compressor Selections

Evaporator, Condenser, and Compressor Selections

Three main components serve all systems operating within the refrigeration cycle. A compressor, condenser, and evaporator can be designed to accommodate several locations within a building. A parallel compressor rack requires a remote condenser and can be located in large mechanical rooms, pent houses or trailers. Packaged rack systems can be designed for exterior locations reducing floor space and piping between condenser and compressors. Self-contained split systems include an exterior packaged compressor and condenser. These are often utilized in remodels for supplemental capacity and reduce equivalent length and refrigerant charge.

Refrigerant Piping and Line Sizing

Refrigerant Piping and Line Sizing

To reduce refrigerant charge, piping, and installation cost protocol systems are often selected. These systems distribute equipment closer to the evaporators and cases throughout a building. As an alternative to routing refrigerant piping throughout the building, secondary systems utilize a glycol loop and heat exchanger. This design specifically reduces refrigerant charge required.

Refrigerant Equipment Control and Power Wiring

Refrigerant Equipment Control and Power Wiring

Refrigerant Selection

Refrigerant selection is critical to a properly engineered system. Refrigerants are classified based on their ozone depletion potential and their global warming potential. Currently R-22 refrigerants are being phased out. This increases cost and the ability to maintain existing systems. HFC refrigerants such as R-407a and R-410a along with Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide systems can be designed to accommodate the specific needs of the project.

Leak Detection Systems

Leak Detection Systems

Leak detection systems are becoming more main stream in today’s buildings. Owners want to protect their buildings and their contents from catastrophe. Today’s buildings house valuable content that needs to be protected just like private information over the internet. Leak Detection Systems are commonly found in mechanical rooms, overhead/underground piping, storage areas, and refrigerated areas to detect piping leaks for any type of gas or liquids. Depending on the system, they can detect both a leak and the exact location of the leak. Because this equipment is usually located in unfrequented locations, leaks are commonly discovered after major damage is already realized which causes heavy delays in production/construction/product movement/building operation/repair/damaged product. The ability to detect a leak at the initial onset is critical in minimizing risk and provides an additional insurance policy to the building and its contents. These systems allow owners to minimize all realized costs associated with leaks which can result from heavy delays in production/construction/product movement/building operation/repair/damaged product, etc. Some examples of use are below:

  • Large Refrigerated Storage facilities such as Grocery stores and warehouses
  • Building mechanical rooms with Refrigeration/HVAC/Generator/Electrical equipment used to operate the building
  • Industrial pipe lines used for manufacturing
  • Data Centers/‘Server’ Rooms